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AN IDEA IS BORN

  • "Common Lands" on Amazon.com
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    FOOTNOTES
    Common Lands, Common People:
    The Origins of Conservation in Northern New England

    by Richard Judd
    Harvard University Press

    back to Common Lands, Common People, Chapter 8

    Notes to Chapter 8 -- The Romantic Landscapes of Tourism

    1 Maine Farmer, February 9, 1899.

    2 John Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation, (New York, 1975), p. 60.

    3 John F. Sears, Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century, (New York, 1989), pp. 3-5; William C. Lipke, "Changing Images of the Vermont Landscape," in Vermont Landscape Images, 1776-1976, Lipke and Philip N. Grime, eds. (Burlington, Vermont, 1976), p. 36; Maine Farmer, July 2, 1870.

    4 Sears, Sacred Places, p. 4.

    5 T.D. Seymour Bassett, "Documenting Recreation and Tourism in New England," American Archivist, 50 (Fall 1987): 554; Leroy T. Carleton, Maine as a Vacation State, (Portland, Maine, 1902), p. 10; Richard R. Wescott, "Early Conservation Programs and the Development of the Vacation Industry in Maine, 1865-1900," Maine Historical Society Quarterly, 27 (Summer 1987): 2-13; Richard W. Judd, "Reshaping Maine's Landscape: Rural Culture, Tourism, and Conservation, 1890-1929," Journal of Forest History, 32 (October 1988): 180-90; New York Times, March 18, 1928, part 10, p. 10; Maine Woods, March 31, 1905.

    6 Nation, 65 (August 19, 1897): 145-46; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1909, p. 349; Governor Nelson Dingley, Jr., "The State of Maine," New England Magazine, 4 (July 1891): 569.

    7 J.H. Huntington, "Scenery of Coos County," in C.H. Hitchcock, The Geology of New Hampshire, (Concord, New Hampshire, 1874), pp. 636-37.

    8 NHFoC, 1885, p. 11; NHFoC, 1928, p. 122-23; Hitchcock, Geology of New Hampshire, pp. 73-87; NHF&G, 1880, p. 39.

    9 Louise B. Roomet, "Vermont as a Resort Area in the Nineteenth Century," Vermont History, 44 (Winter 1976): 5. See T.D. Seymour Bassett, "Urban Penetration of Rural Vermont, 1840-80," Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1952, p. 324; Andrea Rebek, "The Selling of Vermont: From Agriculture to Tourism, 1860-1910," Vermont History, 44 (Winter 1976): 17, 20.

    10 Rebek, "Selling of Vermont," pp. 22-23.

    11 Maine Industrial Journal, June 30, 1882. See "General Description by Counties," VAG, 1891-1892, pp. 128, 131-32; New York Times, March 21, 1920, part 2, p. 2; MeBILS, 1887, p. 239; MeBILS, 1898, p. 36; Board of Trade Journal, 2 (October 1889): 185; Maine Sportsman, 3 (September 1895): 11; Maine Industrial Journal, August 15, 1884, July 1916.

    12 Board of Trade Journal, 1 (June 1888): 79; 15 (July 1902): 77; 15 (April 1903): 369; Maine Central, 7 (February 1899): 34; Carleton, "Maine as a Vacation State," p. 14; Maine Sportsman, 1 (May 1894): 9.

    13 Robert H. Babcock, "The Rise and Fall of Portland's Waterfront, 1850-1920," Maine Historical Society Quarterly, 22 (Fall 1982): 79-85; Board of Trade Journal, 1 (January 1889): 271; (October 1891): 166; 21 (July 1908): 137; 25 (October 1912): 310; 26 (February 1914): 450; Maine Central, 4 (May 1897): 214.

    14 Roomet, "Vermont as a Resort Area," p. 10.

    15 Board of Trade Journal, 1 (December 1888): 239.

    16 Lipke and Grime, Vermont Landscape Images, 1776-1976, p. 11.

    17 Maine Central, 7 (February 1899): 24.

    18 Maine Central, 2 (September 1895): 6; Board of Trade Journal, 10 (May 1897): 9; 23 (June 1910): 52.

    19 Board of Trade Journal, 8 (January 1896): 264; 8 (January 1896): 265; 23 (August 1910): 167; MeF&G, 1919, pp. 5-6. On Roosevelt see Maine Woods, July 22, 1908.

    20 Board of Trade Journal, 1 (August 1888): 119; 4 (September 1891): 143; 4 (October 1891): 172; C.A. Stephens, A Busy Year at the Old Squire's, (Norway, Maine, 1922), p. 95.

    21 Day Allen Willey, "A National Breathing Spot," Outing, 52 (July 1908): 405-12.

    22 New York Times, March 21, 1920, part 2, p. 2; Maine Central, 4 (July 1897): 282; Robert Herrick, "The State of Maine -- 'Down East,'" Nation, 115 (August 23, 1922): 183.

    23 Maine Sportsman, 1 (September 1893): 3. See Alfred Elden, "Maine Fishermen at Grips with Death," New York Times, September 13, 1925, part 4, p. 8; Granite Monthly, 42 (August 1910), p. 253; Hill-Top, 3 (August 9, 1896): 2.

    24 William Henry Bishop, "Hunting an Abandoned Farm in Upper New England," Century Magazine, 26 (1894): 31.

    25 Willey, "National Breathing Spot," p. 409; Board of Trade Journal, 8 (December 1895): 230; 10 (August 1897): 107; 19 (June 1906): 58-59; Maine Sportsmen, 1 (May 1894): 11; Martha K. Norkunas, The Politics of Public Memory: Tourism, History, and Ethnicity in Monterey, California, (Albany, New York, 1993), p. 93.

    26 Maine Central, 1 (May 1894): 4; MeBA, 1892, p. 166.

    27 Newman Smyth, "The Lake Country of New England," Scribners' Magazine, 8 (October 1890): 493; Norkunas, Politics of Public Memory, p. 76.

    28 Bishop, "Hunting an Abandoned Farm," pp. 30-43; Bishop, "The Abandoned Farm Found," Century Magazine, 40 (1901): 884-92.

    29 Minnie L. Randall, "One of New Hampshire's Abandoned Farms," Granite Monthly, 35 (July 1903): 44-46.

    30 Bishop, "Hunting an Abandoned Farm," p. 31; Bishop, "Abandoned Farm Found," p. 889.

    31 Board of Trade Journal, 9 (October 1896): 167.

    32 NHA, 1890-1891, pp. 163-64.

    33 Board of Trade Journal, 12 (August 1899): 134; Harold Fisher Wilson, The Hill Country of Northern New England: Its Social and Economic History, 1790-1930, (New York, 1936), p. 278.

    34 George W. Perry, "A Convenient and Profitable Home Market," Vermont State Horticultural Society, Fifth Annual Report, 1908), (Bellows Falls, Vermont, n.d.), pp. 85-86.

    35 Perry, "Convenient and Profitable Home Market," p. 87.

    36 Hill-Top, 26 (July 30, 1921): 6.

    37 MeF&G, 1900, pp. 14-15. See Board of Trade Journal, 14 (August 1891): 135; 5 (September 1892): 134; 12 (November 1899), p. 198; MeF&G, 1898, p. 14; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1909, p. 350.

    38 Paul W. Gates, "Two Hundred Years of Farming in Gilsum," Historical New Hampshire, 23 (Spring 1978): 17; VAG, 1896, p. 109; Maine Farmer, July 8, 22, 1897.

    39 NHA, 1881, pp. 294-96; NHF&G, 1884, pp. 39, 42; Granite Monthly, 28 (June 1900): 347-49.

    40 Nation, 65 (August 19, 1897): 145; Bishop, "Abandoned Farm Found," p. 890. See Board of Trade Journal, 19 (November 1906): 356; Rural Vermonter, October 7, 1887.

    41 Wilson, Hill Country, pp. 196-97, 293-94; Rebek, "Selling of Vermont," pp. 24-25; Maine Farmer, February 9, 1899.

    42 Paul A. Eschholz, "The Land of a Thousand Hills: Literary Images of the Vermont Landscape, 1865-1945," in Lipke and Grime, Vermont Landscape Images, 1776-1976, p. 13; George S. Wasson, "The Rusticators at the Cove," Capt'n Simeon's Store, (Boston, 1903), pp. 155-66.

    43 Reiger, American Sportsmen, p. 35; Maine Sportsman, 3 (February 1896): 12; NHA, 1881, p. 308; Helenette Silver, A History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, (Concord, New Hampshire, 1957), p. 96; Maine Woods, February 10, 1905; Carleton, "Maine as a Vacation State," pp. 17-18;

    44 Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1909, p. 349. See Maine Central, 4 (November 1896): 32; 4 (November 1896): 32; Maine Farmer, March 10, 1877.

    45 Maine Farmer, August 4, 1864.

    46 MeF&G, 1877, p. 17.

    47 MeF&G, 1874, p. 22; MeF&G, 1876, p. 15; MeF&G, 1880, p. 5.

    48 MeF&G, 1875, p. 23; MeF&G, 1878, pp. 17-18.

    49 NHF&G, 1896, p. 6; MeF&G, 1881, pp. 7, 9, 18; Burlington Daily Free Press, January 17, 1881.

    50 Reiger, American Sportsmen, pp. 38-39; Arthur F. Stone, The Vermont of Today, vol. 2 (New York, 1929), pp. 714-15; Charter and By-Laws of the Vermont Association for the Protection and Preservation of Fish and Game, (Bennington, Vermont, 1876); David Goodsell Gale, "The History of the Vermont Fish and Game Commission, 1866-1960," M.A. thesis, University of Vermont, 1963, pp. 3, 38-39, 40, 55; Florence J. Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation to Conservation and Education: Progress Report of the Vermont Fish & Game Department," reference files, Vermont State Archives, 1894, p. 16; Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, p. 407; Maine Farmer, March 6, 1875; NHF&G, 1914, p. 11; Maine Industrial Journal, July 17, 1885.

    51 MeF&G, 1904, p. 74. See VF&G, 1900, p. 74; VF&G, 1904, pp. 10-11.

    52 James A. Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife? The Political Economy of Conservation in the Nineteenth Century, (Westport, Connecticut, 1981), p. 181; MeF&G, 1889-1890, p. 4; MeF&G, 1908, p. 37.

    53 Industrial Journal, November 21, 1890, April 20, 1891; Maine Woods, November 15, 1907; MeF&G, 1898, p. 15.

    54 Maine Industrial Journal, May 8, 1891.

    55 Maine Industrial Journal, April 24, 1891. See MeF&G, 1898, p. 15; MeF&G, 1900, p. 13.

    56 Maine Woods, February 17, 24, 1905.

    57 Maine Woods, February 24, 1905. See ibid., February 17, 24, 1905, October 7, 1908.

    58 "On hatcheries," MeF&G, 1898-1908; Maine Woods, November 15, 1907, February 21, 1908. "On subsequent debates over plug fishing," Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1925, p. 542; Legislative Record, 1927, pp. 626-28; Legislative Record, 1931, p. 760; Legislative Record, 1933, p. 154.

    59 Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, pp. 119-28. See Edward Howe Forbush, A History of the Game Birds, Wild-Fowl, and Shore Birds of Massachusetts and Adjacent States, (Boston, 1912), p. 33.

    60 NHF&G, 1880, p. 43; NHF&G, 1918, p. 7; MF&G, 1899, p. 20; MF&G, 1901, p. 75; MF&G, 1904, pp. 139-40; Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation," p. 59.

    61 MF&G, 1887, p. 30.

    62 Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation," pp. 8, 59; NHF&G, 1902, p. 4; NHF&G, 1914, p. 21; VF&G, 1910, p. 14; MF&G, 1904, p. 127; MF&G, 1909, p. 73; Forbush, History of the Game Birds, pp. 370-73.

    63 Sappiel Soccalexis in "Caribou Notes," box 618; notebook: "Father's Articles and About Game," box 618, p. 17, Fanny Hardy Eckstorm Papers, Special Collections Department, University of Maine; MeF&G, 1904, pp. 21-24; Maine Woods, September 30, 1902, December 23, 1904; New York Sun, 1899; Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, pp. 228-29.

    64 Maine Farmer, November 19, 1870, March 23, 1872, April 5, 1888; Maine Industrial Journal, March 20, 1896; MeF&G, 1900, pp. 19-21; MeF&G, 1904, p. 20; MeF&G, 1907, p. 20; MeF&G, 1919, p. 11.

    65 Leonard E. Foote, The Vermont Deer Herd: A Study in Productivity, (Montpelier, Vermont, 1946), pp. 7-12; Gale, "History of the Vermont Fish and Game Commission," p. 12; Peter Giroux, "The Vermont Deer Herd: A History of Control," typescript, 1970, p. 1, Vermont State Library; Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation," pp. 3, 33, 35; Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, pp. 81-84, 205-06.

    66 MF&G, 1887, p. 31. See MF&G, 1891, p. 48-49.

    67 NYCFG&F, 1895, p. 166.

    68 Foote, Vermont Deer Herd, p. 65, 67, 73; Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, pp. 133, 201; Randall, "One of New Hampshire's Abandoned Farms," pp. 44-46; P.L. Buttrick, "Forest Growth on Abandoned Agricultural Land," Scientific Monthly, 5 (July 1917): 82-87; James Walter Goldthwait, "A Town That has Gone Downhill," Geographical Review, 17 (October 1927): 542; Roland M. Harper, "Changes in the Forest Area of New England in Three Centuries," Journal of Forestry, 16 (April 1918): 444.

    69 VF&G, 1894, pp. 58-59.

    70 VF&G, 1898, p. 76.

    71 VF&G, 1898, p. 69; NHF&G, 1892, p. 98; NHF&G, 1894, p. 92; Foote, Vermont Deer Herd, p. 13; Giroux, "Vermont Deer Herd," pp. 2-3; Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, pp. 83-84.

    72 VAG, 1891-1892, p. 157; VAG, 1912, pp. 3-5; NHF&G, 1902, p. 5; MeF&G, 1904, pp. 13, 70-71; MeF&G, 1916, p. 21; Maine Sportsman, 14 (December 1906): 63-69; 14 (March 1907): 134; Maine Woods, October 7, 1904, March 15, 1907.

    73 Maine Woods, September 30, 1902.

    74 MF&G, 1891, p. 51. See Boston Transcript in Maine Sportsman, 2 (November 1894), p. 7.

    75 Boston Herald, in Maine Sportsman, 2 (November 1894): 7.

    76 MeF&G, 1900, p. 24; Me&G, 1880, p. 3.

    77 Maine Farmer, December 31, 1885. See ibid., January 19, 1888.

    78 Maine Farmer, February 2, 1905. See ibid., January 9, 1890, February 23, 1905, May 30, 1907. According to an "informal poll" taken by the Maine Woods, (February 10, 1905), only 6 percent of Oxford County farmers favored total repeal of game laws.

    79 Thomas R. Dunlap, Saving America's Wildlife, (Princeton, New Jersey, 1988), p. 8.

    80 VF&G, 1873-1874, appendix, p. 53.

    81 Maine Farmer, January 19, 1905.

    82 Jock Darling in "On Dogging Dear," box 618, no. 10, Eckstorm Collection. See Abby Maria Hemenway, Vermont Historical Gazetteer, vol. 2 (Burlington, Vermont, 1868-1891), p. 613; NYCFG&F, 1895, pp. 223-24.

    83 Jock Darling, "On Dogging Deer."

    84 NYCFG&F, 1895, pp. 216-28; Burlington Free Press, May 10, 1869, November 29, 1883.

    85 NYCFG&F, 1895, pp. 166-78.

    86 NYCFG&F, 1895, pp. 107, 208-09, 214, 216; Burlington Free Press, April 19, 1886; Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, pp. 194-99.

    87 Reiger, American Sportsmen; Dunlap, Saving America's Wildlife, pp. 37-38; Lisa Mighetto, Wild Animals and American Environmental Ethics, (Tucson, Arizona, 1991), pp. 27-41; Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, pp. 43-51; MeF&G, 1891-1892, p. 13; MF&G, 1891, p. 50; Maine Sportsman, 1 (October 1893): 4.

    88 Manly Hardy, "Reply to 'Special'" (1891), Father's Articles and About Game. See Wilbur Day, Wilbur Day (1864-1924), Hunter, Guide, and Poacher: An Autobiography, Edward D. Ives, ed. (Orono, Maine, 1985), p. 56; New York Times, November 4, 1889; Maine Industrial Journal, January 30, 1885, January 25, 1889.

    89 Maine Farmer, February 20, 1902. See Machias Union, January 3, 1905; Maine Industrial Journal, January 18, 1884; Ellsworth American, February 1, 1883.

    90 Maine Farmer, February 23, 1899, April 16, October 1, 1903; Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, p. 217.

    91 Hardy, "Reply to 'Special.'" See Hardy, "Those Ninety Deer," in Father's Articles and About Game; Maine Industrial Journal, February 17, 1888; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1909, p. 348; Portland News, January 10, 1928; Maine Sportsman, 14 (December 1906): 62.

    92 Manly Hardy, "Reply to 'Special.'" See Maine Industrial Journal, February 17, 1888, February 6, 1891.

    93 Maine Farmer, March 12, 1903. See Maine Central, 4 (October 1896): 3; Maine Woods, December 211, 1906.

    94 MF&G, 1900, p. 46; MF&G, 1909, p. 77; VF&G, 1902, pp. 23-25; VF&G, 1904, p. 141; VF&G, 1910, p. 16; NHF&G, 1878, p. 22-23; NHF&G, 1883, p. 30; NHF&G, 1891, p. 62; Vermont Watchman and State Journal, November 22, 1882, October 29, 1884.

    95 Maine Industrial Journal, February 17, 1888; Maine Sportsman, 4 (June 1897): 3. See "Wardens," 618, f10, Eckstorm Collection.

    96 Maine Industrial Journal, November 19, 1886, January 11, 1888, January 25, 1889; MeF&G, 1883, p. 18; MeF&G, 1886, p. 8; Edward D. Ives, George Magoon and the Down East Game War: History, Folklore, and the Law, (Urbana, Illinois, 1988).

    97 Maine Farmer, February 9, 1899, January 29, 1903. See ibid., December 8, 1898, August 8, 1901.

    98 Maine Farmer, February 12, 26, 1903. See ibid., February 4, 1904; Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, pp. 55, 219.

    99 Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, pp. 102-04; Maine Farmer, February 9, 1899.

    100 Maine Farmer, July 26, August 2, 25, 1900.

    101 Maine Farmer, December 3, 1903. See ibid., January 28, March 17, 1904.

    102 C.H. Abbott, in Maine Farmer, January 24, 1900. See ibid., October 25, 1900; January 15, 1903.

    103 Grand Master Obidiah Gardner in Journal of the Proceedings of the Maine State Grange, December 15-17, 1903, pp. 23, 24. See Maine Farmer, July 26, 1900, January 29, February 26, December 17, 1903.

    104 Maine Farmer, October 15, 1903.

    105 Maine Farmer, October 15, 1903; Waterville Mail, February 8, 1900, in U.S. Forest Service Clipping File, "Maine Forests and Forestry," Forest History Society, Durham, North Carolina.

    106 Maine Farmer, May 17, 1900, July 26, 1900.

    107 Maine Farmer, May 17, 1900. See ibid., January 28, 1904.

    108 Maine Farmer, January 18, 1900; August 8, 1901, January 29, February 26, April 9, 1903; Maine Woods, March 3, 1905; Board of Trade Journal, 8 (March 1896): 330; Industrial Journal, April 9, 1896; Carleton, Maine as a Vacation State; MeF&G, 1900, pp. 29-30; MeF&G, 1904, p. 15.

    109 Maine Farmer, July 7, 1904, January 19, 1905. See Maine Farmer, February 26, 1903; Journal of the Proceedings of the Maine State Grange, December 19-21, 1905, p. 25.

    110 New York Times, December 20, 1913; Maine Farmer, January 19, 1905. See MeF&G, 1904, p. 15; MeF&G, 1908, p. 60; Maine Woods, February 10, March 3, 1905, February 24, 1910.

    111 Maine Farmer, April 11, 1907; VF&G, 1910, p. 28; MF&G, 1909, p. 71; Giroux, "Vermont Deer Herd," p. 3; Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation," pp. 37-38.

    112 MF&G, 1916, p. 59. See Giroux, "Vermont Deer Herd," p. 3; NHF&G, 1906, pp. 171-72.

    113 MF&G, 1907, p. 8. See NHF&G, 1914, p. 22; NHF&G, 1916, p. 8; NHF&G, 1922, p. 9; MF&G, 1910, p. 177; MF&G, 1912-1914, p. 76; Giroux, "Vermont Deer Herd," p. 3; VF&G, 1912, p. 7.

    114 Maine Farmer, October 25, 1900, January 13, June 23, 1910; MeF&G, 1900, pp. 14-15, MeF&G, 1914, pp. 5, 21; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1909, p. 350; Legislative Record, 1917, pp. 1031-32; VAG, 1891-1892, p. 158; VF&G, 1900, p. 76; NHF&G, 1914, p. 7; Maine Woods, April 21, 1910.

    115 NHF&G, 1904, p. 126; NHF&G, 1906, pp. 171-72; MeF&G, 1902, p. 16, MeF&G, 1904, pp. 25-26, 57; Maine Woods, October 26, 1906.

    116 NHF&G, 1918, p. 6. See VF&G, 1908, pp. 6-7; NHF&G, 1910, p. 3; MeF&G, 1919, p. 8; Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation," p. 21; Gale, "History of the Vermont Fish and Game Commission," p. 190; Silver, History of New Hampshire Game and Furbearers, p. 92.; Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, pp. 207-10.

    117 VF&G, 1894, pp. 39-40; VF&G, 1902, p. 22; Perry, "From Colonization and Depredation," pp. 15, 20; Gale, "History of the Vermont Fish and Game Commission," pp. 57-58; MeF&G, 1904, p. 57; MeF&G, 1914, p. 5; MeF&G, 1919, pp. 7-10.

    118 Nathan Lowrey, "A Historical Perspective on the Northern Maine Guide," Maine Historical Society Quarterly, 26 (Summer 1986): 2-21; MeF&G, 1898, p. 25; Maine Sportsman, 4 (October 1896): 16; 4 (November 1896): 56; 4 (January 1897): 6; 4 (February 1897): 3; 5 (September 1897): 9; 5 (August 1898): 6; MeF&G, 1898, p. 36; MeF&G, 1900, pp. 44, 64.

    119 Dunlap, Saving America's Wildlife; Gale, "History of the Vermont Fish and Game Commission," pp. 75-79, 126.

    120 Tober, Who Owns the Wildlife, pp. 139, 184.

    121 The New Northeast, 1 (July 1894): 4, 6.

    122 C. Vey Holman, "The Advantages of Maine for Electrochemical Industries," Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society, 19 (1911): 2-3; Lincoln Smith, The Power Policy of Maine, (Berkeley, California, 1951), pp. 15-24.

    123 Maine Sportsman, 1 (October 1893): 8; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1907, p. 476.

    124 Maine Woods, March 1, 1907; Maine Central, 4 (October 1896): 10; Arthur L. Golder, "The Rangeley Lakes," New England Magazine, 22 (July 1900): 565; Board of Trade Journal, 10 (July 1897): 76.

    125 Maine Woods, March 8, 1907; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1907, pp. 473, 486; Lewiston Journal, February 9, 21, March 8, 1907. See Theodore Steinberg, Nature Incorporated: Industrialization and the Waters of New England, (New York, 1991).

    126 Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1907, pp. 476, 480, 484; Maine Woods, March 15, 1907; Lewiston Journal, February 15, 1907.

    127 Committee on Interior Waters, "Report on . . . Union Water Power Company," 1907, box 924, MeSA; Waterville Sentinel, March 5, 1907.

    128 David Richards, "An Eden Out of a Country Farm: Purity and Progress in the Landscapes of the Poland Spring Resort," Maine History, 34 (Fall 1994): 136-53; Hill-Top, 3 (September 6, 1896): 1-2; Board of Trade Journal, 19 (June 1906): 85; 21 (June 1908): 75; Lewiston Journal, February 23, 1921.

    129 The Waterville Sentinel, (July 1, 1908) claimed that Fernald's election was assured by "the shrewd business ability of the men who have made a fortune from a boiling spring in a state containing half a million just like theirs." See ibid., January 18, 1907, July 1, 2, 17, 1908; Maine Woods, July 29, 1908, January 7, 1909.

    130 Lewiston Journal, February 9, 1907. See ibid., February 23, 1921; Waterville Sentinel, February 27, 1907.

    131 Waterville Sentinel, February 5, 25, March 1, 2, 5, 1907; Lewiston Journal, February 21, 1907; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1907, p. 482.

    132 Maine Farmer, February 14, 1907. Even the bill's proponents admitted that rural Franklin and Oxford counties opposed the draw-down. See Lewiston Journal, March 7, 1907; Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1907, p. 478.

    133 Lewiston Journal, February 9, 1907. See Maine Woods, March 8, 1907.

    134 Lewiston Journal, February 21, 1907. On monopoly in Maine's staple industries, see Richard W. Judd, Edwin A. Churchill, and Joel W. Eastman, eds., Maine: The Pine Tree State from Prehistory to the Present, (Orono, Maine, 1995), pp. 391-419.

    135 Maine Woods, March 15, 1907.

    136 Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, 1907, pp. 380-81. See ibid., March 7, 1907, pp. 483, 487; Lewiston Journal, February 14, 1907.

    137 Lewiston Journal, February 9, 1907; Maine Sportsman, 14 (February 1907): 115; Waterville Sentinel, February 28, 1907.

    138 Lewiston Journal, February 14, 1907. See Lewiston Journal, March 7, 1907.

    139 Eastern Argus, January 27, 1909. See Lewiston Journal, February 9, 14, 1907.

    140 Lewiston Journal, March 4, 1907.

    141 Quoted in Board of Trade Journal, 26 (February 1914): 457-58.

    142 Stephen Fox, The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy, (Madison, Wisconsin, 1985), pp. 106-07, 100.

    143 F.C. Barker, in Committee on Interior Waters, "Report on . . . Union Water Power Company." See Barker in Waterville Sentinel, March 6, 1907.

    144 Arthur G. Staples, "Evolution of Maine Waterpowers," Sprague's Journal of Maine History, 12 (July-September 1924): 196.

    145 Lewiston Journal, March 22, 1921.


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